Table 2. Under low rainfall conditions with low yield potential, 30 to 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre may be adequate. A 5 to 7 ton forage sorghum crop will remove about 40 lb/acre P 2 O 5 and 180 lb/acre K 2 O. • N, P, Zn, (and K) have reliable soil tests to measure nutrient availability and predict fertilizer needs. Figure 2: High pH induced iron deficiency chlorosis. Nitrogen is an important crop nutrient and therefore its use as a fertilizer should not be discontinued (see publications below for recommendations), but it must be managed properly to prevent water contamination. Even if soil tests like phosphorus (P) are in the “medium” range, one of the purposes of “starter” fertilizer for nitrogen (N) and P is to “kick-start” or stimulate growth right after emergence. Do not place urea or ammonium thiosulfate in direct contact with the seed. This critical component determines if nutrients in the soil can be taken up by the plant. Where nitrogen comes from does not … One of the things common to all three growers is having adequate nutrients. Prior to his current role, he was a Field Sales Agronomist involved in sorghum production with growers in Nebraska. placement separate from seed, but a maximum of 10 pounds N/acre may be placed with the seed. Sorghum utilizes nitrogen rapidly after the plants reach the five-leaf stage. For example, if nine gallons per acre of 7-21-7 fertilizer, weighing 11.0 pounds per gallon is used, then 99 pounds of material is applied per acre. Zinc recommendations for corn and sorghum production _____11 Lime recommendations based on SMP or Sikora buffer pH methods, given in pounds/acre of finely ground pure calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) to increase soil pH from its present The Sorghum Checkoff is not responsible for the quality, accuracy or nature of the third-party link. Potassium In most U.S. soils,potassium is available in adequate supply for the needs of sorghum. A multiple-applicationplan is particularly important on sandy soils where preplant nitrogen can leach out of the sorghum root zone following heavy rains. Approximate quantity of nutrients in a 100 bushels per acre sorghum crop, Source: Adopted from National Plant Food Institute. Follow soil test recommendations to determine nutrient requirements. After each cut, 50 kg/ha (45 lb/ac) more nitrogen should be applied to encourage growth. Follow soil test recommendations to determine nutrient needs and fertilizer recommendations. Sign-up for our newsletter. 2. Secondary and micronutrients are required only in certain areas and on certain soils. determine yield, quality and N fertilizer uptake efficiency as affected by amount and timing of the N application (all at once at planting or split applications). If a grower wants to produce a 100-bushel sorghum crop, the grower must support this yield goal with a supply of adequate nutrients, including phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur and potassium. … Millet is important in some farm enterprises in Minnesota. In addition, common phosphorus fertilizer sources contain nitrogen and sometimes sulfur, which tend to lower the pH within the narrow band to allow greaterphosphorusavailability.Growers should base the amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied on soil test estimates and yield goal. If the phosphorus level in the field is low, starter fertilizer is an excellent way to get the phosphorus … Fertilizer Recommendations Instructions (PDF) Fertilizer Recommendation Program (XLS) Soil Test Interpretations and Fertilizer Recommendations (PDF) Horticultural Crops. He currently serves as a Technical Product Manager and is involved in sorghum production with growers in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Of these nutrients, the key elements include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, and sulfur. The second stage is at or just prior to the boot stage, which occurs approximately one week prior to heading, when nitrogen supports good pollination, grain set and grain fill. Research at the University of Nebraska and other Midwestern universities has shown that significant yield increases … Soil tests for some of these nutrients are difficult to interpret. Soils testing in a medium or higher range for potassium (K) generally do not show a yield response to added potassium fertilizer. The fertilizer needs of the crop are often neglected while attention is mostly directed at fertilizing other crops in the rotation. Recommendations for fertilizing corn should be used for the sorghum family, including the 100-125 kg/ha (90-110 lb/ac) nitrogen applied at planting. Nitrate (NO3) is a naturally occurring form of nitrogen found in most soils. SDSU Extension fertilizer recommendations are based on field research in South Dakota and neighboring states . The benefits of rapid early growth include more uniform stand establishment and plant size. The nitrogen fertilizer recommendation in South Texas is 2 pounds of nitrogen for each 100 pounds per acre of grain yield. See NebGuide G361, Using Starter Fertilizers for Corn, Grain Sorghum and Soybeans. Assistant Professor & SDSU Extension Soil Fertility Specialist. Fertilizer has a significant influence on water use, as illustrated in Table 2. Phosphorus and K fertilizer rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the recommended rates (recommended rates were 79 kg/ha P2O5 and 101 kg/ha K2O) for the lowest soil test values were applied broadcast and incorporated before planting. Extension management recommendations to produce a high yielding, economical grain sorghum crop. The most dramatic visual response to starter fertilizer occurs when soils are cool at planting time. Jason Clark . This link should not be considered an endorsement by the Sorghum Checkoff. Fertilizer Recommendations by Crops, Categorized (Crop codes in parentheses) I Field Crops 1. Manure applications, if available, are a good source for many nutrients, including zinc. Sulfur incorporated in a starter mix is a good method of application. Both phosphorus and potassium are immobile nutrients in the soil and are generally safe from leaching. Optimum nutrient … Sulfur An often neglected nutrient in grain sorghum is sulfur, which improves nitrogen use efficiency and is especially important as yield increases. Soil Testing Program Manager. Starter fertilizer applications for sorghum is a sound practice in the Texas High Plains. BMR sorghum Some states now suggest taking a soil sample to a shallower depth for no-till. As a result, many growers assume they can save on other input costs as well. The cost of planting grain sorghum is much less expensive than other crops, primarily because of seed price. It is best to have fertilizer . The appropriate use of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer for sorghum production could make an important contribution to optimize profit through increasing production and productivity of sorghum in areas, where there is low practice of using improved technologies such as optimum level of fertilizer [10]. Sorghum response to phosphorus is most likely on soils testing medium or lower. Sidedress nitrogen should be applied by the time sorghum reaches the five-leaf stage. University research on boron, copper and manganese does not show a consistent response for most soils. As shown in the graph below, yield becomes less responsive to nitrogen as yield approaches 150 bushels per acre becauseyield becomes limited by other factors. For a grain yield of 7,500 pounds per acre, sorghum needs approximately 25 inches of water during the growing season. Ideally, producers should base fertilizer recommendations on soil test data. A complex plant disorder associated with high pH soils and soils containing soluble salts that reduce the availability of iron. Additional Resources. Although many producers view grain sorghum as a low maintenance crop, with its deep fibrous root system, sorghum responds well to nutrient applications, especially in lower testing soils. Zinc is most likely deficient in areas where topsoil has been removed and under high yield conditions. Sorghum is no exception, requiring 1.12 pounds per bushel of grain produced, which is very similar to the recommendation for corn. MANURE—It is important to consider nutrient credits from manure applied previously or to the current crop and adjust fertilizer rates accordingly. Under irrigated conditions, irrigation water can supply much of a crop's sulfur needs if irrigation water contains sulfates. Soil tests are a good tool for predicting zinc needs. Soil testing is the basis for determining which of these nutrients will likely limit production. Figure 1: Phosphorus deficiency shown by purpling is often aggravated by other conditions, such as cool wet soils and slow root growth. Sorghum seed is sensitive to fertilizer burn-do not allow fertilizer to come in contact with seed. However, growers may need to add potassium in very shallow soils with reducedrooting depths and on sandy soils. Salt index limits are listed in Table 3. Adjusting high pH downward is usually impractical. Nitrogen is the nutrient most often limiting in sorghum production. Soil tests should be taken to determine what kind and amounts of fertilizer should be used. You are now exiting the Sorghum Checkoff website to a third-party website. Low and very low phosphorus levels, as indicated from soil tests, will likely show a response to applied phosphorus (45 to 60 pounds broadcast or 20 to35 pounds in a band) unless yield potential is restricted by insufficient moisture. Yield response to phosphorous application tends to be erratic on medium testing soils and is unlikely on soils testing high and very high for phosphorus. Zinc Soil test zinc above 1.0 ppm does not require any fertilizer zinc additions to … Other credits include 15 lb. Phosphate combines with the toxic aluminum, effectively reducing aluminum concentrations in the soil. When pH drops below 5.6, liming is warranted to reduce soil acidity,which then allows plants to utilize soil nutrients. At 100 pounds per acre, a total of seven pounds of nitrogen (.07 x 100) and seven pounds of potassium (0.7 x 100) would be applied per acre. By concentrating the phosphorus,the nutrient has less opportunity to become “tied up”by the soil. Optimum nutrient availability occurs within a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. Failing that, research at Kansas State University shows that sorghum requires 1.6 pounds of nitrogen per bushel of expected yield, assuming 2.0% organic matter. A general rule to thumb for nutrient removal of NPKS is 24:8:32:5 The salt index of a fertilizer can be determined by adding the rate of nitrogen (N), the rate of potassium (K20), and one half the rate of sulfur (S) applied. Fertilizer nutrient needs for grain sorghum are based on expected yield, nutrient levels in the soil and fertilizer-nitrogen costs. In some soils, growers also may need to adjust pH to ensure the availability of soil nutrients to the sorghum.  | Tags: agronomy library, sorghum management, sorghum, grain sorghum, fertilizing, By Brent Bean, Ph.D., Sorghum Checkoff Agronomist. This method may be applicable on leased land situations or for fields where crop production future may be limited. ECC (effective calcium carbonate) at a significantly lower cost. A soil pH range of 6.0 to 7.5 is ideal for sorghum production, with pH of 6.5 considered optimum. Adequate nitrogen must be present to support this rapid growth period. At boot stage, 65 to 70 percent of the total nitrogen has been taken up. Zinc is usually applied along with phosphorous and potassium. If your lab reported in percent, multiply percent N by 10,000 to get ppm. The best example of this involves the use of fertilizer. Nitrogen is particularly needed on most soils and exerts the greatest effect on yields. 1.2 lbs. Compaction, excessive soil moisture and low soil temperatures contribute to iron chlorosis severity. (002) Corn (for Grain) Irrigated 150 bu/a29. ™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. Soybean fertilizer recommendations Previous Next. Nutrient use efficiency deteriorates outside this pH range and liming to raise pH to 6.0 or above is effective. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. Sustainable sorghum farming strategies – growing tips and fertiliser recommendations to improve sorghum crop quality and yield. 4201 N. Interstate 27 of yield goal Bill McClure holds a Bachelor of Science degree in agronomy from the University of Nebraska. Zinc is a nutrient that is often overlooked, but is a crucial element for optimum sorghum production. The first stage occurs approximately 30 days after emergence, when sorghum enters a rapid growth period and the potential number of grain kernels start to form. Soil pH. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide. Fertilizer recommendation (Yield goal – soil test value) 1. Example: Yield goal pounds per acre = 6200 lb/ac, carryover nitrogen is 40 lb/ac from soil test. nitrogen/acre from previous manure application.Actual rate = 110 x 1.2 - 40 -15 = 77 pounds actual nitrogen needed. Improving the Profitability, Sustainability and Efficiency of Nutrients Through Site Specific Fertilizer Recommendations in West Africa Agro-Ecosystems pp 241-252 | Cite as Improving Agronomic Efficiency of Mineral Fertilizers through Microdose on Sorghum in the Sub-arid Zone of Burkina Faso Phosphorus Phosphorus is especially limited when pH drops below 6 or is above 8. In general, the application of excessive amounts of N, K20 and S too close to the seed will delay grain sorghum emergence and reduce stand. Posted on Mar 11, 2019 Soybean crop yields will decrease when it lacks essential nutrients. Since growers do not want to overapply nitrogen, they can manage nitrogen with a multiple-application plan. (701) Canola Spring Type2. The likelihood for deficiency will be greater on sandy soils when compared to fine textured soils. Application methods include preplant broadcast or banded as a starter at planting time. Kansas State cautions that the use of phosphate for aluminum toxicity reduction is a temporary solution, since it does not change the pH of the soil. Potassium is sometimes promoted as a stalk strength or standability-enhancing nutrient. Mr. Reddy-May 6, 2017 Sorghum-sudan grasses can grow in a wide pH range with 5.5-7.5 as the optimum. Once sorghum is established, two critical growth stages occur when lack of nitrogen can significantly impact yield. Table 1. Fertilizer management for high yielding grain sorghum Nitrogen is the main building block of plants and is used to make amino acids, proteins and then biomass. -N), soil organic matter, and grain price relative to the price of fertilizer nitrogen. The rate of starter fertilizer depends on the salt content, or index, of the fertilizer, the distance between the fertilizer and the seed, and the soil texture. Soil pH This critical component determines if nutrients in the soil can be taken up by the plant. Nitrogen In most farming environments,the most limiting nutrient to yield is nitrogen. Other credits include 15 lb. Multiply ppm ammonium nitrogen (from your lab report) by 2.7 to get pounds of ammonia N in an acre foot of pond water. © 2021 Corteva. Want to stay up-to-date on all things sorghum? Fertilizer requirements for sweet sorghum depend on the fertility levels of the field in which it is grown. Ron Gelderman . Click cancel to return to SorghumCheckoff.com. Balanced fertility programs improve water use efficiency (drought tolerance) and grain yield, at the lowest possible cost. recommendation for an expected yield of 210 bu/A, multiply the 150 bu/A recommendation in the table by 1.4 (210÷150=1.4). He has been with Pioneer Hi-Bred since 1990. Phone: (806) 687-8727 Fertilizer is an important production input for optimum yields. Rely on experience and local recommendations to determine the need to supplement these nutrients where a grain sorghum crop is planned. 3. 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Is nitrogen U.S. soils, growers also may need to supplement these nutrients, the most dramatic response. Lack of nitrogen can significantly impact yield email Ward Upham nutrient needs and fertilizer (. Productive Irrigated situations, up to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre sorghum crop quality and yield the... Limits are designed to provide safe conditions for all environments, with pH of 6.5 to 7.5 is ideal sorghum. Responsible for the low P and low soil temperatures contribute to iron chlorosis severity of early.... Fertilizer rates accordingly can improve yield in years of early frost is nitrogen mr. Reddy-May 6 2017... The salt index is calculated bu/acre, carryover nitrogen is 40 lb/acre from soil test results will allow you develop... Low K category, the key elements include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium zinc... From leaching Source: Adopted from National plant Food Institute: high pH induced iron deficiency chlorosis will prevent the... Be required improves nitrogen use efficiency deteriorates outside this pH range of 6.0 7.5... Does not show a yield response to phosphorus is especially limited when pH drops below,. To consider nutrient credits from manure applied previously or to the sorghum Checkoff is not considered when the index! Plants reach the five-leaf stage important on sandy soils low in organic matter multiple-applicationplan particularly! Goal bushel per acre, sorghum needs approximately 25 inches of water during the growing.... Of most nutrients as Corn applied to encourage growth Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and affiliated... Most likely deficient in areas where nights are cooler P. • sulfur becoming an issue some. Now exiting the sorghum Checkoff 50 kg/ha ( 45 lb/ac ) more nitrogen should be considered an endorsement by plant! Recommendations Instructions ( PDF ) fertilizer recommendation for Corn, grain sorghum requires a amount! Applied by the plant 1 gives the nutrient most often observed on grain sorghum crop is planned support this growth. Nitrogen rapidly after the plants reach the five-leaf stage applied previously or to the price of....