Freehling, William W., The Road to Disunion: Volume II. Still, much of the campaigning that did follow consisted of parades and rallies that boosted interest in the election (on election day some four-fifths of eligible voters turned out). Not all of the Douglas supporters agreed to the Reading slate deal and established a separate Douglas only ticket. "Sectionalism and the Secession Crisis," in John B. Boles, ed., Grinspan, Jon, "'Young Men for War': The Wide Awakes and Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign,". In the midst of the American Civil War, incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party easily defeated the Democratic nominee, former General George B. McClellan, by a wide margin of 212–21 in the electoral college, with 55% of the popular vote. Young politician Richard Oglesby had secretly found several fence rails from the Hanks-Lincoln farm that Lincoln may have split as a youngster, and paraded them into the convention with a banner that proclaimed Lincoln to be "The Rail Candidate" for President. He had just started his second term when he was assassinated in April of 1865. [18], In Ohio, a slate of presidential electors pledged to Smith ran with the name of the Union Party. This was often referred to as the Reading electoral slate, because it was in that city that the state party chose it. William H. Seward from New York was considered the front-runner, followed by Salmon P. Chase from Ohio, and Missouri's Edward Bates. The Wide Awakes young Republican men's organization massively expanded registered voter lists, and although Lincoln was not even on the ballot in most Southern states, population increases in the free states had far exceeded those seen in the slave states for many years before the election of 1860, hence free states dominated in the Electoral College.[33]. A: Abraham Lincoln’s victory in November 1860 as the Republican candidate for the White House forever changed the relationship between the American government and the institution of slavery. The Breckinridge and Bell electors finished behind all other candidates. [29][30], Since Andrew Jackson had won re-election in 1832, all six subsequent presidents had only won one-term, while the last four of those had won with a popular vote under 51 percent.[31]. The presidential aspirations in the 1860 campaign of “Honest Abe,” Republican Abraham Lincoln, were not without periodic acerbic exchanges with his … Former Representative Abraham Lincolnfrom Illinois, Former Representative Edward Bates from Missouri, Former Senator William L. Dayton from New Jersey, The Republican National Convention met in mid-May 1860, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn their convention in Charleston. At most, a single opponent nationwide would have deprived Lincoln of only California, Oregon, and four New Jersey electors,[35] whose combined total of eleven electoral votes would have made no difference to the result since every other state won by the Republicans was won by a clear majority of the vote: in this scenario, Lincoln would have received 169 electoral votes, 17 more than the 152 required to win. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/United-States-presidential-election-of-1860, History Central - Presidential Elections 1860, Encyclopedia Virginia - United States Presidential Election of 1860, Social Studies for Kids - The Election of 1860, Maps of World - U.S. Presidential Election 1860, United States presidential election of 1856, United States presidential election of 1864, Presidency of the United States of America. Also running were John C. Frémont, William L. Dayton, Cassius M. Clay, and Benjamin Wade, who might be able to win if the convention deadlocked. “The Undecided Political Prize Fight,” a lithograph depicting the presidential campaign of 1860 and featuring Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Many Southerners saw the potential election of Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the antislavery Republican Party, as a threat to their way of life and the harbinger of secession. Lincoln won in every state he carried in 1860 except New Jersey, and also carried a state won four years earlier by Stephen Douglas (Missouri), one carried by John C. Breckinridge (Maryland) and all three newly admitted states (Kansas, Nevada and West Virginia). Meant all the southern delegates who walked out in Charleston left. There were no ballots distributed for Lincoln in ten of the Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. Bell carried three slave states (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia) and lost Maryland by only 722 votes. Stephen A. Douglas, "US President - Liberty (Union) National Convention", "POLITICAL MOVEMENTS. The Republican Party was not a national party but rather a party of the North. [citation needed], Indeed, voting in the South was not as monolithic as the Electoral College map would make it seem. Arkansas convened a secession convention, which voted against secession and adjourned temporarily. Its platform promised not to interfere with slavery in the Southern states but opposed the further extension of slavery into the Western territories. On April 20, 1860, the party held what it termed a national convention to nominate Houston for president on the San Jacinto Battlefield in Texas. Lincoln's simple question caught Douglas in a dilemma. Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, the champion of popular sovereignty policy, was the Northern Democrats’ candidate, and Vice Pres. While Benjamin Fitzpatrick from Alabama was nominated for vice president, he refused the nomination. (Item 823) The Carolina Watchman offered much the same argument in its November 13, 1860, edition stating that "The democrats have gained several members to Congress in the Northern States, which will give them a majority in both Houses. In 1856, Fremont received 32% of the vote in Pennsylvania, 40% in Illinois, and 40% in Indiana. 1 decade ago. Favorite Answer. Trying to unite Northern and Southern Democrats, the convention then turned for vice president first to Sen. Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Alabama, who declined nomination, and eventually to Herschel V. Johnson, a former U.S. senator and former governor of Georgia, who was chosen as Douglas’s running mate. A wealthy slaveowner from Tennessee who served in both the House and the Senate, he ran for U.S. President against Lincoln, Breckinridge, and Douglas in 1860 with the Constitutional Union Party on a moderate pro-slavery platform. Omissions? The two parties controlled Congress for almost equal periods, though the Democrats held the presidency only during the two terms of Grover Cleveland (1885–89 and 1893–97). [3], The conservative Bates was an unlikely candidate, but found support from Horace Greely, who sought any chance to defeat Seward, whom he now had a bitter feud with. election between Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell and Stephen A. Douglas, * Third party is endorsed by a major party, Democratic (Northern Democratic) Party nomination, Southern Democratic Party candidates gallery, Liberty Party (Radical Abolitionists, Union) candidates gallery. Kentucky and Missouri, with one-fourth the total population, voted 73 percent pro-union Bell, Douglas and Lincoln. Except in some border areas, the Republican party did not attempt any organization in the South and did not print ballots there because almost no one was willing to acknowledge publicly they were voting for Lincoln for fear of violent retribution. His victory, with 40 percent of … How about in 2012? [citation needed] The election would now pit Lincoln against his longtime political rival, whom Lincoln had lost to in the Illinois senate race just two years earlier. ... What if Fred Durst ran for President Of The United States Of America? The name of its presidential candidate, Abraham Lincoln, an ardent opponent of slavery, would not… They could no longer tolerate Northern state attitudes that regarded slave ownership as a great sin and Northern politicians who insisted on stopping the spread of slavery.[47][48][49]. During the mid-to-late 1850s, the antislavery Republican Party became a major political force in the wake of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Supreme Court's decision in the 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sandford. This absurdly low total was partly due to the fact that four candidates were on the ballot, but it remains the poorest showing by any winning presidential candidate in American history. Answer: 1 question Who ran for president as a republican in 1860? The 1860 Constitutional Union Convention nominated a ticket led by former Senator John Bell of Tennessee. It should be further noted that, prior to introduction of the secret ballot in the 1880s, the concept of ballot access did not exist in the sense it does today: there was no standardized state-issued ballot for a candidate to "appear" on. However, the "conditional Unionists" also hoped that when faced with secession, Northerners would stifle anti-slavery rhetoric and accept pro-slavery rules for the territories. To overcome his disadvantage, Lincoln adopted an unobtrusive publicity campaign. ... 1832: Ran for state legislature – lost. Representatives: 1932 to 2010", United States presidential election of 1860, 1860 election: State-by-state Popular vote results, United States Presidential Election of 1860 in, Abraham Lincoln: Original Letters and Manuscripts, 1860, Overview of Constitutional Union National Convention, Presidential Election of 1860: A Resource Guide, Bill Bigelow, "The Election of 1860 Role Play", elections in which the winner lost the popular vote, Notable third party performances in United States elections, South Carolina 1954 (Democratic Write-In), Third party officeholders in the United States, Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1860_United_States_presidential_election&oldid=999126219, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham Lincoln, former representative from Illinois, Edward Bates, former representative from Missouri, John McLean, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, William L. Dayton, former senator from New Jersey, James Guthrie, former treasury secretary from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, senator from Virginia, Daniel S. Dickinson, former senator from New York, John C. Breckinridge, Vice President of the United States, Jefferson Davis, senator from Mississippi, John J. Crittenden, senator from Kentucky, Edward Everett, former senator from Massachusetts, William A. Graham, former senator from North Carolina, William C. Rives, former senator from Virginia, Gerrit Smith, former representative from New York. Bell himself had hoped that he would take over the former support of the extinct Whig Party in free states, but the majority of this support went to Lincoln. The second round eliminated most of the minor contenders, with votes switching to Seward or mostly to Lincoln. The United States had become increasingly divided during the 1850s over sectional disagreements, primarily the extension of slavery into the territories. Virginia convened a secession convention, which voted against secession but remained in session. Toward the end of 1859, D. W. Bartlett published in New York Twenty-one Prominent Candidates for the Presidency in 1860, and in early 1860 a Philadelphia publishing house printed John Savage's Our Living Representative Men, Prepared for Presidential Purposes. In a four-way contest, the Republican Party ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin emerged triumphant. He also was firmly opposed to nativism, which further weakened his position. Photo of Abraham Lincoln taken in NYC in February of 1860 . Question: Who ran for president as a Republican in 1860? Breckinridge also did little campaigning, giving only one speech. By Lincoln’s inauguration in March, seven Southern states had seceded. Lincoln's best results, by far, were in the four counties that comprised the state's northern panhandle, a region which had long felt alienated from Richmond, was economically and culturally linked to its neighbors Ohio and Pennsylvania and would become the key driver in the successful effort to form a separate state. With the Democrats in disarray and a sweep of the Northern states possible, the Republicans felt confident going into their convention in Chicago. Bell, who won 12.6 percent of the vote, secured 39 electoral votes by winning Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. His “main object,” he had written, was to “hedge against divisions in the Republican ranks,” and he counseled party workers to “say nothing on points where it is probable we shall disagree.” With Republicans united, and with division within the Democratic Party and surrounding Bell’s candidacy, the primary fear that Republicans had was that some disunity might appear and hamper their chances. Lincoln's main opponent in the North was Douglas, who finished second in several states but won only the slave state of Missouri and three electors from the free state of New Jersey. Lincoln was the second President-elect to poll no votes in any state which had a popular vote (the first was John Quincy Adams, who polled no ballots in the popular votes of two states in the election of 1824, although that was a unique election in which there were four major candidates, none of whom distributed ballots in every state). where he received 1,929 votes (1.15 percent of the total). Nevertheless, he finished a remarkable second in all slave states won by Breckinridge or Douglas. In the four states of New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and New Jersey where anti-Lincoln votes were combined into fusion tickets, Lincoln still won three and split New Jersey:[36] despite this, a shift of 25,000 votes to the fusion ticket in New York would have left Lincoln with 145 electoral votes - seven votes short of winning the Electoral College - and forced a contingent election in the House of Representatives. But the seven Lincoln-Douglas Debates they held across Illinois were mentioned in newspapers around the country, raising Lincoln’s political profile. Douglas, however, was an active campaigner, in both the North and the South, where he gave a passionate defense of the Union and strenuously opposed secession. May 18, 1860 Republican Convention is held in Chicago, Illinois. Between 1789 and 1860, Southerners had been president for two-thirds of the era, and had held the offices of Speaker of the House and President pro tem of the Senate during much of that time. It was held on November 6, 1860. On this day in 1860, Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican to win the presidency, defeating a divided Democratic Party. The Democratic Party split in two. Douglas was the only candidate who won electoral votes in both slave and free states (free New Jersey and slave Missouri). Within the fifteen slave states, Lincoln won only two counties out of 996, Missouri's St. Louis and Gasconade Counties. [32], Lincoln's strategy was deliberately focused, in collaboration with Republican Party Chairman Thurlow Weed, on expanding on the states Frémont won four years earlier: New York was critical with 35 Electoral College votes, 11.5 percent of the total, and with Pennsylvania (27) and Ohio (23) as well, a candidate could collect 85 votes, whereas 152 were required to win. The 1864 election occurred during the Civil War; none of the states loyal to the Confederate States of America participated. He had also opposed tariffs demanded by Pennsylvania, and even had opposition from his own delegation from Ohio. [37][38] Of the five states that Lincoln failed to carry despite polling votes, he received 20 percent of the vote in only one (Delaware), and 10 percent of the vote in only one more (Missouri). William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase and Abraham Lincoln of Illinois are the leading contenders from a field of 12 candidates. Lincoln’s Republican Party was more united in comparison to his competitors, and he ran a vigorous campaign filled with parades and other activities. He also made sure that the Illinois delegation would vote as a bloc for him. The standoff continued until mid-April, when Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered Confederate troops to bombard and capture Fort Sumter. After the convention concluded with no vice-presidential nominee, Douglas offered the nomination to Herschel Vespasian Johnson from Georgia, who accepted. Lincoln, whose sole experience in national government had been as a one-term member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois, confounded contemporary pundits by appointing all three of these political powerhouses to his cabinet: Seward as secretary of state, Chase as secretary of the treasury, and Bates as attorney general. This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 16:39. Douglas won that election. It excludes South Carolina from the calculation, because in 1860 it chose presidential electors in the state legislature, without a popular vote. The election of Lincoln led to the secession of seven states in the South before the inauguration and the outright secession of four more (plus the partial secession of two others) once the Civil War began with the Battle of Fort Sumter. Douglas said he believed a new state could prohibit enslavement. Excluding the 1824 election, the 1860 presidential election was the only occasion prior to the introduction of the secret ballot where a winning candidate was so unpopular in a particular region that it was impossible to organize and print ballots for a slate of eligible voters pledged to vote for that candidate in an entire state. Trying to transcend the sectional divide was the Constitutional Union Party, which was formed in 1859 by former Whigs and members of the Know-Nothing Party. It wasn’t that Lincoln was the first nominee for the … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Northern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas took nearly 30 percent of the vote but won only Missouri’s 12 electoral votes. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 13 Answers. In his letter, Smith donated $50 to pay for the printing of ballots in the various states. As a supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, ... Seymour had vetoed the initial bill to establish mail-in voting and would go on to run against Ulysses … The incumbent president, James Buchanan, like his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, was a Northern Democrat with sympathies for the South. While Bell retired to his family business, quietly supporting his state's secession, Breckinridge served as a Confederate general. The senatorial campaign featured a remarkable series of public encounters on the slavery issue, known as the Lincoln-Douglas debates, in which Lincoln argued against the spread of slavery, while Douglas maintained that each territory should have the right to decide whether it would become free or slave. Lincoln ran under the National Union banner against his former top Civil War general, the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. Later mass meetings were held in northern cities, such as New York City on May 30, 1860, but they too failed to nominate a vice-presidential candidate. Six candidates were nominated: Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois, James Guthrie from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter from Virginia, Joseph Lane from Oregon, Daniel S. Dickinson from New York, and Andrew Johnson from Tennessee, while three other candidates, Isaac Toucey from Connecticut, James Pearce from Maryland, and Jefferson Davis from Mississippi (the future president of the Confederate States) also received votes. He took no action against the secessionists in the seven "Confederate" states but also declared that secession had no legal validity and refused to surrender federal property in those states. This larger group met immediately in Baltimore's Institute Hall, with Cushing again presiding. So it did at the Illinois state convention, a week before the national convention. [11][15], John Bell was a former Whig who had opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Lecompton Constitution. Abraham Lincoln: Abraham Lincoln won two presidential elections, first in 1860 and then again in 1864. Lincoln lost the Se… [3], Into this mix came Lincoln. Mexican War hero Winfield Scott suggested to Lincoln that he assume the powers of a commander-in-chief before inauguration. Delivered in Seward's home state, and attended by Greely, Lincoln used the speech to show that the Republican party was a party of moderates, not crazed fanatics as the South and Democrats claimed. Baltimore's Institute Hall, not be confused with Charleston's Institute Hall also used by the walk-out delegations. In ten southern slave states, no citizen would publicly pledge to vote for Abraham Lincoln, so citizens there had no legal means to vote for the Republican nominee. Large Gathering of the People in Union-Square--Washington statue Illuminated. The results in the South are instructive in understanding the deep sectional divide. In spite of his professed ill health, Gerrit Smith was nominated for president and Samuel McFarland from Pennsylvania was nominated for vice president. United States presidential election of 1860. There was quite a spirited contest between the friends of Gerrit Smith and William Goodell in regard to the nomination for the presidency. By the time of Lincoln’s inauguration in March, seven Southern states had seceded, and barely a month after Lincoln became president, the country became engaged in civil war. Voter turnout was 81.2%, the highest in American history up to that time, and the second-highest overall (exceeded only in the election of 1876). Stephen Arnold Douglas: This Biography of the Man Who Ran Against Lincoln in the 1860 Election: Brown, William Garrott: Amazon.com.tr What percent of US Citizenry voted by mail in 2016? He had not yet announced his intentions to run, but it was superb speech. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [46], Bertram Wyatt-Brown argues that secessionists desired independence as necessary for their honor. "1860 Presidential Election Results". Unlike every preceding president-elect, Lincoln did not carry even one slave state. Sen. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated as Lincoln’s running mate. Abraham Lincoln, photograph by Mathew Brady. At the Democratic National Convention held in Institute Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, in April 1860, 50 Southern Democrats walked out over a platform dispute, led by the extreme pro-slavery "Fire-Eater" William Lowndes Yancey and the Alabama delegation: following them were the entire delegations of Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas, three of the four delegates from Arkansas, and one of the three delegates from Delaware. Former SenatorDaniel S. Dickinson from New York, SenatorRobert M. T. Hunter from Virginia(declined to be nominated), Senator Joseph Lane from Oregon(declined to be nominated), Senator Jefferson Davis from Mississippi(declined to be nominated). Abraham Lincoln’s chief competitors for the nomination as the presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1860 were front-runner William H. Seward, a U.S. senator from New York; Salmon P. Chase, the governor of Ohio; and Edward Bates, a prominent state legislator from Missouri. [3], Chase, a former Democrat, had alienated many of the former Whigs by his coalition with the Democrats in the late 1840s. States where the margin of victory was under 1%: States where the margin of victory was under 5%: States where the margin of victory was under 10%: Lincoln's victory and imminent inauguration as president was the immediate cause for declarations of secession by seven Southern states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) from 20 December 1860 to 1 February 1861. Source (Popular Vote): .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Leip, David. Eventually, the state party worked out an agreement: if either candidate could win the national election with Pennsylvania's electoral vote, then all her electoral votes would go to that candidate. Afterwards, Lincoln was in much demand for speaking engagements. [19], The People's Party was a loose association of the supporters of Governor Samuel Houston. Instead, presidential ballots were printed and distributed by agents of the candidates and their parties, who organized slates of would-be electors publicly pledged to vote for a particular candidate. Though many party members favoured the total abolition of slavery, the party pragmatically did not call for abolition in those states that already had slavery. Starting in the 1856 United States presidential election and certainly by 1860, the Republican Party had replaced the defunct Whig Party as the major opposition to the Democrats. Find an answer to your question Who ran against Lincoln in the presidential election of 1864 oliviamarlowe3800 oliviamarlowe3800 06/18/2017 History High School Who ran against Lincoln in the presidential election of 1864 1 See answer oliviamarlowe3800 is waiting … In the 1860 presidential election, Abraham Lincoln ran against the Southern Democratic candidate John C. Breckinridge, Northern Democratic candidate Stephen Douglas and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell and, in the 1864 election, he ran against Democratic candidate George B. McClellan. Abraham Lincoln President-elect Lincoln Receiving Visitors in the State House Hugh McCullough Map of the 1860 Presidential Election The Great Exhibition of 1860 The Coming Man’s Presidential Career a la Blondin The National Game. Entering the convention, Sen. William H. 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