The date of composition has proven to be very difficult to determine. Peter was martyred about 67 (The Ryrie Study Bible, p. 425).” Furthermore, it is argued that Peter states Mark (5:13) was with him at the time the epistle was written. It is elaborated on in Jude 6. The Apostle Peter is more concerned about the false teachers than just about anything else in 2nd Peter and so he tells the church, “take care that you are not carried away with the error of lawless people and lose your own stability” (2nd Pet 3:17) and one way to prevent that from happening is to “grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” [so] “To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. The 2 Peter usage seems to be later in time, after the fuller meanings of Christ’s prophecies became more apparent to the Church; thus the usage of 1 Peter is logically followed by 2 Peter. 1 Peter was written to help suffering Christians, 2 Peter was written to expose false teachers. If 2 Peter 3:1 alludes to 1 Peter, the audience of the epistle is the various Churches in Asia Minor in general (cf. The differences in vocabulary between the two letters can be explained by the differences in theme. The Second Letter of Peter is principally concerned with the Second Coming of Christ. Some were exploiting them with false words (2nd Pet 2:3) and “They promise them freedom, but they themselves are slaves of corruption” (2nd Pet 2:19). 1:12–15) not too long before his death by execution, While 1 Peter is focused mainly on persecutions and how Christians are to live under such circumstances, 2 Peter is intended to confront and oppose deceptive beliefs introduced by “false prophets” intent on undermining the faith of Church members. The error combated is comparable to the kind of heresy present in the first century. In an effort to stem the tide of heresy and false teaching among the Christians, Peter Author: Peter Date Written: 67-68 AD Major Theme: To expose false teachers and encourage believers to be on guard against destructive doctrines. Why Peter Wrote. Further, it goes as far as to name the Pauline epistles as "scripture"—the only time a New Testament work refers to another New Testament work in this way—implying that it postdates them by some time. Most critical biblical scholars have concluded Peter is not the author, considering the epistle pseudepigraphical.[1][2]. According to the Epistle itself, it was composed by the Apostle Peter, an eyewitness to Jesus' ministry. The churches of Asia Minor were not just struggling with the persecution and suffering addressed in Peter’s first letter; they also had strife and dissension within their ranks. Peter introduces 2nd Peter by writing “Simeon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ” (2nd Pet 1:1). This becomes impossible, of course, if one accepts the view that the letter was not written by Peter, but by someone else, perhaps even decades after the apostle's death. Origen himself mentions that there were some doubts as to its authenticity, but he himself did not deal with the problem which seems to imply that he didn’t take the doubts seriously.10 The Muratorian Canon did not contain 2 Peter, but it also omits 1 Peter, so this is not a decisive factor. Taken literally, it would have been written between 65–68 AD because Peter was martyred around 68 AD by Nero and also because Peter references his approaching death in 2 Peter 1:14 ("since I know that the putting off of my body will be soon, as our Lord Jesus Christ made clear to me"). Second Peter is the apostle Peter’s last reminder to the church. Peter calls for faithfulness and confronts corrupt teachers who distorted the message about Jesus and lead others astray. This was a time of severe persecution for the Jews and more so for the Jewish Christians, as most of the church was composed of Jews who placed their trust in Christ and suffered for it, which is why Peter wrote 1st Peter. "[7], Origen, in another passage, has been interpreted as considering the letter to be Petrine in authorship. 4) Jude uses apocryphal books and 2 Peter does not (perhaps because he has excluded the references because of their unorthodox character [cf. 2 Grace and peace be yours in abundance through the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord. 66-68 A.D. (After death). Second Peter is thought to have been written aboutthe year 67 A.D. possibly from Rome. "The Second Epistle of Peter and The Epistle of Jude: An Introduction and Commentary", Leithart, Peter J. 2 Peter 1:4 - Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.. 2 Peter 1:20-21 - Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. I think it can be said that 1 Peter was written around AD 65 with 2 Peter coming about in AD 67. This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:55. but not ...". Second Peter is a very influential writing in its 3 chapters, and if the writer were a forger, then he would have had an agenda to forge a … Most critical biblical scholars have concluded Peter is not the author, considering the epistle pseudepigraphical. The epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. He speaks of Paul's letters as scripture (2Peter 3:15-16), so it follows that he would regard his own letters in the same way. Arguments have been made both for and against this being part of the original text, but this debate largely is centered on the acceptance or rejection of supernatural intervention in the life of the writer.[13]. Second Peter is the third of the General Epistles (or Catholic Letters), the writings of apostles to the church at large. 2 Peter: 1. Jude 6 however, is a clear reference to the Book of Enoch. 2 Peter 3:3) 25 The questions of authorship and date are closely related. [10], Eusebius (c. 275–339) professed his own doubts (see also Antilegomena), and is the earliest direct testimony of such, though he stated that the majority supported the text, and by the time of Jerome (c. 346–420) it had been mostly accepted as canonical. Tradition indicates that Peter died sometime around AD 67 during Nero’s reign (AD 54-68). For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2nd Pet 1:20-21). What Is The Purpose Of The Book Of 2nd Peter? He called on Christians to grow and become strong in their faith so that they could detect and combat the spreading apostasy. I also speculate that 1 Peter was written shortly after the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem (cf 1 Peter 2:5). 2 Peter explains that God is patient, and has not yet brought the Second Coming of Christ in order that more people will have the chance to reject evil and find salvation (3:3–9). Since Peter was martyred during the reign of Nero, his death must have occurred prior to a.d. 68; so it is very likely that he wrote 2 Peter between 65 and 68. Supersessionism struggles to stay coherent if 1 Peter was written to Jews Like Like [11], The Peshitta, the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition, does not contain the Second Epistle of Peter and thus rejects its canonical status. Donald Guthrie suggests that "It is fair to assume, therefore, that he saw no reason to treat these doubts as serious, and this would mean to imply that in his time the epistle was widely regarded as canonical. Tradition holds that he was crucified around 64–65 A.D., which means he would have written this letter about this time. [14][15], Tartarus is mentioned in 2 Peter 2:4 as devoted to the holding of certain fallen angels. It criticizes "false teachers" who distort the authentic, apostolic tradition, and predicts judgment for them. 1:12-15), after he had written a prior letter (3:1) to the same readers (probably 1 Peter). 2 Peter was written toward the end of Peter’s life (cf. "The Promise Of His Appearing: An Exposition Of Second Peter". The second epistle of Peter is generally attributed to the apostlePeteras the letter opens with salutation "Simon Peter, a servant andapostle of Jesus Christ," however there are some questions concerning theauthenticity of this claim. 17:1–8). the writing styles [between 1 and 2 Peter] are vastly different. A Bible Study, "Sondergaard is a member of the New Apostolic Reformation cult. In 3:15, 16 a reference is made to one of Paul's epistles, which some have identified as 1 Thessalonians 4:13–5:11. The introductions and salutations of the two epistles match well, further indicating a common authorship. 2 Peter was written toward the end of Peter's life (cf. In addition, over the first two centuries, knowledge of 2 Peter was quite limited geographically. The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by Apostle Peter. 64-65 A.D. If so, Peter would have to be dead and 2 Peter already written. 2 Pet. Jerome also accepted 2 Peter as authentic.1… Their condemnation from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep” (2nd Pet 2:2-3). Green, Michael. Adams, Thomas B. Understand the book of 2 Peter better. However, just prior to this, Paul had written Timothy to bring Mark to Rome with him (1 Timothy 4:11). Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! When was James written? This book served as Peter’s final warning to his fellow Christians. Patheos has the views of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the world. This is a blog series featuring contributors to the new book, Cruciform Scripture. But that’s another story. There is hypocrisy in their teachings; they say one thing but then do the very thing they teach others to abstain from and tragically, they’ve become “entangled in them and overcome, the last state has become worse for them than the first” (2nd Pet 2:20) which is all the more reason why Peter wanted to church to remember “that no prophecy of Scripture comes from someone’s own interpretation. Bauckham suggests that 2 Peter 2:4 is partially dependent on Jude 6 but is independently drawing on paraenetic tradition that also lies behind Jude 5–7. 2. It was to become one of his last epistles, as he was martyred in Rome under Emperor Nero in 68 A.D. Jude's grammar and style are stronger than Peter. They will say, “Where is the promise of his coming? [8] Before Origen's time, the evidence is inconclusive;[9] there is a lack of definite early quotations from the letter in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, though possible use or influence has been located in the works of Clement of Alexandria (d. c. 211), Theophilius (d. c. 183), Aristides (d. c. 134), Polycarp (d. 155), and Justin (d. He specifically mentions that he was an eyewitness of the transfiguration (1:16–18; see Matt. The epistle presciently declares that it is written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14). (225 AD) 2. This is part of the reason why commentators have so long debated whether 1 Peter was written to Jews or Gentiles. [3], Most biblical scholars have concluded Peter is not the author, considering the epistle pseudepigraphical. 2 Peter speaks of the false teachers as yet to come while Jude presents them as recently infiltrating the church. Acceptance of the letter into the canon did not occur without some difficulty; however, "nowhere did doubts about the letter's authorship take the form of definitive rejection. 2 Peter. The author attributes the apparent delay to God’s patience in allowing time for universal redemption and notes that in the sight of God 1,000 years are like one day. Eusebius rejected it but indicated that the majority accepted the epistle, including James and Jude. The earliest reference by any apostolic writer to 2 Peter, appears to be Origen. M. R. James, "The Second Epistle General of St. Peter and the General Epistle of St. Jude", in, C. Bigg, "The Epistle of St Peter and Jude", in. Since Jude belongs in the postapostolic age, Peter cannot have written II Pet. Was it a follow up to his first letter or about something altogether different? To insist that the se… 165). There is no external evidence prior to Origen indicating that Peter wrote 2 Peter. Certainly, these truths are not dependent upon 1 Peter 2:9–10! Just thinking about this should make us ask, “what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be set on fire and dissolved, and the heavenly bodies will melt as they burn” (2nd Pet 3:11-12) so “since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace” (2nd Pet 3:14). The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by Saint Peter. For them, “it would have been better for them never to have known the way of righteousness than after knowing it to turn back from the holy commandment delivered to them” (2nd Pet 2:21). Purpose of Writing: Peter was alarmed that false teachers were beginning to infiltrate the churches. Each of these can be fully justified on the basis of other texts. (Confirming One’s Calling and Election. Peter probably wrote this letter from prison in Rome (see 2 Pet. Peter was very concerned with all of the false teachers moving into teaching positions in the church. They knew very little back ...", "forgot to address your question, "How do you people dress and feed yourselves?" Some have argued that this date is too early for the writing of 2 Peter, but nothing in the book requires a later date. Peter wanted the church to know that God knows how to deliver them all safely into the kingdom and won’t allow the unrighteous to go unpunished on the day of Jesus’ visitation. In 2 Peter, Peter either used a different amanuensis or wrote the letter by himself. Lillie, John. The Apostle Peter wrote this letter near the end of his life; possibly from prison. 1 Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ have received a faith as precious as ours:. "[7] The earliest record of doubts concerning the authorship of the letter were recorded by Origen (c. 185–254), though Origen mentioned no explanation for the doubts, nor did he give any indication concerning the extent or location. 1:12–15), after he had written a prior letter (3:1) to the same readers (probably 1 Peter). He very likely wrote 2 Peter between A.D. 65 and 68. 1 Peter 1:1). Brown, Raymond E., Introduction to the New Testament, Anchor Bible, 1997, Bauckham, RJ (1983), Word Bible Commentary, Vol. Peter identifies himself as an “apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1). (Origen 6.25.8) 3. We have no credible reason to believe that anyone but the Apostle Peter wrote the 2nd Book of Peter and probably very close to the time that Peter was crucified upside down so 2nd Peter was probably written near AD 68, just two years before the destruction and fall of Jerusalem to the Roman’s. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter. The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament.The author presents himself as Peter the Apostle.The text of the letter includes a statement that implies that it was written from "Babylon", which is possibly a reference to Rome.The letter is addressed to various churches in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special offers. [12], In both content and style this letter is very different from 1 Peter. 50, Jude-2 Peter, Waco. You can follow Jack on Google Plus or check out his book Teaching Children the Gospel available on Amazon. The Second Epistle of Peter or Peter 2 was written by the Apostle Peter likely between 65 and 68 A.D. [16], The letter is usually outlined as follows:[citation needed]. This lesson in Second Peter looks at the latter part of chapter one. Clearly, Clement bears witness to the existence and character of the letter of 2 Peter showing that 2 Peter is authentic. The conceptual world and the rhetorical language are so strongly influenced by Hellenism as to rule out Peter definitely, nor could it have been written by one of his helpers or pupils under instructions from Peter. Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners, What Is The Purpose Of The Book Of 1st Peter? The paraenetic traditions are in Sirach 16:7–10, Damascus Document 2:17–3:12, 3 Maccabees 2:4–7, Testament of Naphtali 3:4–5 and Mishna Sanhedrin 10:3. [1][2] Reasons for this include its linguistic differences from 1 Peter, its apparent use of Jude, possible allusions to 2nd-century gnosticism, encouragement in the wake of a delayed parousia, and weak external support.[4]. So when 2 Peter 3:1 says, “Beloved, this is now the second letter I am writing to you,” the letter in mind may well be Jude rather than 1 Peter, especially since the content of the letter described in 2 Peter 3:2 fits Jude better than 1 Peter. And in their greed they will exploit you with false words. Seton, Bernard E. "Meet Pastor Peter: Studies in Peter's second epistle" Review and Herald Pub. Jack is also the Senior Writer at What Christians Want To Know whose mission is to equip, encourage, and energize Christians and to address questions about the believer’s daily walk with God and the Bible. Guest Essay: Is America Suffering from Moral Injury? Basic Stages in the Book of Ages (New Testament), p. 325. He was alarmed … The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Getting The Most Out Of Your Bible Reading. Tradition says that Peter was martyred by … When was 1 Peter written? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things are continuing as they were from the beginning of creation” (2nd Pet 3:3-4) and today, a lot of anti-Christian’s have been saying that, however “The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance” (2nd Pet 3:9), meaning God wants everyone to be saved but tragically not everyone will humble themselves and repent before God and trust in Christ. Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. These nuts claim that God ...", "Maybe what happened to you was simply something going on in your mind or heart ...", "Medical science has progressed tremendously in the last 200 years. It calls on Christians to wait patiently for the parousia and to study scripture. And Jude may have left another signature in 2 Peter. • Reading 2 Peter as a "testament" of the Apostle Peter. The Book of 2 Peter. Since Peter was martyred during the reign of Nero, his death must have occurred prior to a.d. 68; so it is very likely that he wrote 2 Peter between 65 and 68. Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. Peter was quite aware that he was writing scripture. A Bible Study. 48-50 A.D. The main things about salvation are also the plain things like “if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved” (Rom 10:9)? Some have argued that this date is too early for the writing of 2 Peter, but nothing in the book requires a later date. Peter reminded the church “that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires. Why was 2 Peter written? But based on the other three lines of evidence above, it’s more natural to take Peter’s reference to Gentiles as an ethnic distinction first, and a religious distinction only by extension. 2 Peter is an intense, passionate farewell speech addressed to the same Messianic church communities as 1 Peter. 66-68 A.D. Jude 3 speaks as if the age of the apostles has ended. "Lectures on the First and Second Epistles of Peter" Klock & Klock Christian Pub, 1978. Jack Wellman is Pastor of the Mulvane Brethren Church in Mulvane Kansas. The letter refers to the Pauline epistles and so must post-date at least some of them, regardless of authorship, thus a date before 60 is improbable. Peter’s point is for the Christians to believe the Scriptures and not “someone’s own interpretation.” That should keep them from being led into error by these many false teachers. Jesus gives all of us only one of two choices; “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him” (John 3:36). We have no credible reason to believe that anyone but the Apostle Peter wrote the 2nd Book of Peter and probably very close to the time that Peter was crucified upside down … "And Peter , on whom the Church of Christ is built, 'against which the gates of hell shall not prevail' (Matt. 2 Peter was written after 1 Peter which forces the dating of 1 Peter to a time between AD 62-67. 1:12–15), after he had written a prior letter to the same readers (probably 1 Peter). Peter wrote 2nd Peter due to infiltration of false teachers into the church bringing destructive teachings contrary to the gospel of repentance and faith brought by Jesus Christ (Mark 1:15) and so Peter wrote to them that, “false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction” (2nd Pet 2:1) and tragically “many will follow their sensuality, and because of them the way of truth will be blasphemed. [14] Because the Epistle of Jude is much shorter than 2 Peter, and due to various stylistic details, the scholarly consensus is that Jude was the source for the similar passages of 2 Peter. Learn what the Bible teaches in the book of 2 Peter. Already in the early church there were Christian scholars who argued that Peter did not write 2 Peter…The book called 2 Peter was written long after Peter’s death, by someone who was disturbed that some people were denying that the end was coming soon. Why did Peter write the Book of 2nD Peter? Get updates from Christian Crier delivered straight to your inbox. For Petrine authorship to be authentic, it must have been written prior to Peter's death in c. AD 65–67. [5] Scholars consider the epistle to be written anywhere between c. AD 60-130, with a favour for a date between 80-90[6] and so contend that it is pseudepigraphical. Jude 17 gives 3 strong indications of who came first. 2 Peter was written toward the end of Peter’s life (cf. Some interpreters identify the genre of 2 Peter as a testament, the final words and exhortations of a revered figure. Chronic fatigue, addiction, or depression causes... Will This Week Bring an Epiphany for Evangelicals? When was Hebrews written? "A Commentary on the Second Epistle General of Second Peter" Soli Deo Gloria Ministries, 1990. The book also shares a number of passages with the Epistle of Jude, 1:5 with Jude 3; 1:12 with Jude 5; 2:1 with Jude 4; 2:4 with Jude 6; 2:5 with Jude 5; 2:6 with Jude 7; 2:10–11 with Jude 8–9; 2:12 with Jude 10; 2:13–17 with Jude 11–13; 2:18 with Jude 16; 3:2f with Jude 17f; 3:3 with Jude 18; 3:14 with Jude 24; and 3:18 with Jude 25. 2:11; Jude 9]) b. Peter is Prior: Though weak, the arguments for the priority of 2 Peter are as follows: 1) Jude makes reference to 2 Peter in verse 4 and 17 (cf. We can thank God that “the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment, and especially those who indulge in the lust of defiling passion and despise authority” (2nd Pet 2:9-10). Association, 1985. Frank did not write this post. Amen” (2nd Pet 3:18). Hi Phil, I’m reassured by your post here, as I just can’t see that 1 Peter was addressed to a mostly Gentile church. 16:18), has left one acknowledged Epistle; possibly also a second, but this is disputed." The early church also hesitated to accept 2 Peter because of the large number of obviously phony gospels and letters claiming to have been written by Peter (such as the Gospel of Peter). Jesus has fulfilled all of the requirements of the Law of Moses, so trust in Him and stand firm. Since Peter was martyred during the reign of Nero, his death must have occurred prior to a.d. 68; so it is very likely that he wrote 2 Peter between 65 and 68. When was 2 Peter written? But what is lost when the priesthood of the believer is based upon this passage is its original significance regarding the remnant of Israel. In the book, Peter challenges Jesus' followers to continue growing in their faith, love and service to God. T. Callan, "Use of the Letter of Jude by the Second Letter of Peter", The Westminster dictionary of New Testament and early Christian literature, David Edward Aune, p. 256, Christian-Jewish Relations Through the Centuries By Stanley E. Porter, Brook W. R. Pearson, Textual variants in the Second Epistle of Peter, A sizeable article giving an overview of the problems with, and ultimately a defense of, the authenticity of 2 Peter, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Epistle_of_Peter&oldid=996947977, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Exhortation to Christian Virtue (2 Peter 1:3–21), Condemnation of the False Teachers (2 Peter 2:1–22). , Origen, in another passage, has been interpreted as considering the epistle pseudepigraphical. 1. Partners, what is the Promise of his last epistles, as was! 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